Each patient has pre-operative blood and urine testing and, if indicated, radiographs. Then an individualized anesthetic protocol is set up for each patient.
We are very proactive with pain control. All patients receive preanesthetic pain medications and sedatives, have catheters placed, and receive fluids. Many receive continuous intravenous infusions of opioids and morphine epidurals. All receive a local anesthetic.
Most patients are incubated and maintained on gas anesthesia. All patients are closely monitored throughout surgical preparation, the surgery itself, and post-op recovery. We monitor pulse, respiration, temperature, EKG, blood pressure, CO2, and O2 levels. In addition, all patients are monitored visually — blink reflex, jaw tone, and strength of the pulse. Following surgery, all patients receive a series of post-operative injections for pain and anxiety and go home from the hospital with oral pain medication.