Each patient has pre-operative blood and urine testing and,
if indicated, radiographs. Then an individualized anesthetic protocol is set up for each patient.
We are acutely aware of the need for pain control. Transdermal fentanyl patches are applied to most patients. Many receive morphine epidurals. Local anesthetic is used when indicated. All patients receive pre-anesthetic analgesia and have IV catheters and fluids.
Most patients are intubated and maintained on gas anesthesia. All patients are closely monitored throughout surgical preparation, surgery itself, and post-op recovery.
We monitor pulse, respiration, temperature, EKG, blood pressure, CO2 and O2 levels. In addition, all patients are monitored visually — blink reflex, jaw tone, strength of pulse.
Following surgery, all patients receive a series of post-operative injections for pain and go home from the hospital with oral pain medication.